All About Hip Replacement
If one is having a pain in the groin due to diseases or a fracture the patient will experience the following things
- Pain in the groin unable to walk
- Stiffness especially during long period of rest and morning
- Shortening of the involved limb
- Difficulty in carrying out normal day to day work
One would think of getting a hip replacement surgery if
- Prolonged use of pain killers are required
- Using additional support does not help the pain
- Increasing disability in carrying out personal work
Anatomy of the hip Joint
The hip is a ball-and-socket joint. Acetabulum forms the socket while, the head of the thigh bone (femur) forms the head . Smooth cushion like surfaces called the articular cartilage covers the ends of socket and ball. This prevents friction and makes movement smooth.
Common causes of Hip Pain
Cases like Osteo arthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Avascular necrosis, Ankylosis Spondylitis and Childhood diseases can cause roughening of the cartilage leading to damaged joint surfaces. Symptoms of the hip are due to the very reason
Elderly people suffer from this disease causing wear and tear of the hip joint, especially with the one with family history. Cartilage wears away causing the bones to rub against each other causing the problems.
Ankylosing spondylitis and Rheumaoid arthritis
Auto immune diseases in which not only bones are involved but the systemic involvement is present. Ankylosing Spondyitis in addition also causes significant calcification which can affect the spine, hip or both. In a few of these patients, the femur head fuses with the socket leading to significant disability. Rheumatoid arthritis involves smaller joint of the hands and feet. The hip joint is damaged by general attrition of the bones and joint causing extremely deformed femoral head and socket.
Absence of blood supply due to a previous fracture of the femoral neck or acetabulum can cause progressive limitation of the blood supply to the head. This causes the head to collapse thus resulting in arthritis. Excess use of steroid, suffering from typhoid or sickle cell so may cause similar symptoms .
What Happens During Hip Replacement Surgery?
Hip replacement surgery can be performed traditionally or by using what is considered a minimally-invasive technique. The main difference between the two procedures is the size of the incision.
During standard hip replacement surgery, you are given general anesthesia to relax your muscles and put you into a temporary deep sleep. This will prevent you from feeling any pain during the surgery or have any awareness of the procedure. A spinal anesthetic may be given to help prevent pain as an alternative.
- Total Hip Replacement consist of removing the damaged bone and cartilage and replacing it by prosthetic material made of alloy, ceramic and or plastic. The damaged femoral head is removed and replaced with a metal stem that is placed into the hollow center of the femur. The femoral stem may be either cemented or “press fit” into the bone. A metal or ceramic ball is placed on the upper part of the stem. This ball replaces the damaged femoral head that was removed.
- The damaged cartilage surface of the socket (acetabulum) is removed and replaced with a metal socket. Screws or cement are sometimes used to hold the socket in place.
- A plastic, ceramic, or metal spacer is inserted between the new ball and the socket to allow for a smooth gliding surface.
- The Femoral head is removed
- Socket prepared and a metal of alloy inserted and fixed
- Femoral canal prepared and implant inserted
- Ball of varying lengths and different material inserted
- Wound closed after testing for stability and movement